This led to institutionalisation of EIA.
EPA Act 1994 which was converted into EIA Procedures 1995 being enforced by Ghana EPA.
This raised consciousness of general public in 1980s and 1990s.
Better understanding by health sector of effect of work and development on:
- Health of workers and communities
- Transfer of costs to health system from these industrial projects
- Recognition of opportunities to undertake HIA
No systematic adoption of HIA I planning.
WHO introduced HIA in 1994 in the context of health impacts of hydropower dam developments.
Ad hoc applications from transnational mining companies.
2011 Bui Dam study in response to stakeholder concerns.
Baseline data - malaria, schisto, nutrition, health services.
Gaps - effects on health determinants, land use, migration, psycho-social, construction phase issues.
What is the relation between HIA and EIA Regulations
Regulations say that scope of assessment mentions public health and should include environmental health and safety impacts...
But this opportunity to consider health have not been fully exploited. A study found that there was a lack of detailed health implications except for HIV considerations. This was because of International Lender requirements.
Reasons for inadequate coverage
- Lack of health expertise involvement
- Rather general nature of laws
- Lack of specific guidance on scope of HIA in EIA
- Existing framework in the energy sector does exist in current legislation.
- Lack of guidelines os cope of HIA and what proceeds should be undertaken
- Lack of capacity of HIA practitioners, regulators and policy makers
- Absence of clearly defined HIA components I review and monitoring of EIA implementation
- Lack of HIA requirements from International Lenders