Extent with which EU EA processes have done this.
Extent to which NGOS have used the legislation dimple negation of legislation to do this.
- EA has changed in terms of its purpose, responded to demands.
- Also changed in terms of paradigms, changing discourses and policy context has changed.
- Role of NGOs in this
Using accountability as a lens to examine EA practice
- Holding to account or take responsibility for actions (compare to legitimacy)
- Democratic - political, bureaucratic
- Exit - not buy product, not vote for political party
- Voice - campaign or protest
- Aarhus convention very important for EU
- Shifts in Directives and EU Treaties
- Power station assessed separately from transmission lines whether should have considered together because privatisation has split the national distribution system rom the power plant companies.
- Public Inquiry overturned the government agency developing a waste disposal repository because of poor EIA, no alternative sites considered and ...
- National policy statements
- National policy framework in Scotland
- High Speed 2 rail scheme
HS2 case study:
- Only looked at London to Birmingham rather than to Manchester and Leeds (salami slicing)
- No alternatives considered
- Is there a need
- Are alternatives considered
- Fundamental elements of EIA/SEA seemingly circumvented, why
- Levers for environmetal advocates to seek accountability
Conclusion: changing paradigms, changing purposes...and the future?
- Changing global governance
- Increasing demands fro accountability
- From environmental integration to sustainable development
- Evolving EA legislation in the EU
Framing EA through accountability?
- Info taken into account
- IA helps make better decisions, doesn't make decisions for you
- Effective if more sustainable decisions?
- Speeding up decision making destined to fail - controversial schemes take a long time because they are controversial
- Quality of process and assessment
- Openness to other knowledge to discuss the wider strategic issues
- New research agenda
Should we be doing more integrated assessments, caveat that of a Hong Kong public engagement process I was involved wherer NGOs said they hate that word and whe you talk about sustainable development its about compromise and the environment always gets compromised?
- Depends on the context with which the sustainability and sustainable assessment is used, weak or strong decision making context, a way to push a government or private sector agenda.
- Challenge that environmental has lost ground in sustainable and integrated assessments.
Has there been any study of an individual's role has in the process, professional and personal?
- Not sure, individuals gave not been theorised as yet.